The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located behind the base of a man s penis, ahead of the rectum, and below the bladder. It surrounds the urethra, the tube-like channel that carries pee and semen through the penis. The prostates main operate is to create seminal fluid, the liquid in semen that protects, supports, and assists transport sperm.
Cancer begins when healthy cells in the prostate modification and grow out of control, forming a tumor. A tumor may be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to different elements of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow however won’t spread.
Oft, early-stage prostate cancer has no symptoms or indications. It’s usually found through a PSA test or DRE, a process known as screening. If a PSA test or DRE indicates that prostate cancer may be present, more monitoring and testing is required to diagnose prostate cancer. When prostate cancer does cause symptoms or indications, it is ordinarily diagnosed in a later stage. These symptoms and signs can include:
1) Frequent urination
2) Weak or interrupted urine stream or the require to strain to empty the bladder
3) The urge to urinate frequently at night
4) Blood in the urine
5) Blood in the seminal fluid
6) New onset of erectile dysfunction
7) Pain or burning during urination, which is much less common
8) Discomfort or pain when sitting, caused by an enlarged prostate
Occasionally men with prostate cancer don’t have any of these changes. Other noncancerous conditions of the prostate, like BPH or an enlarged prostate, can cause similar symptoms. Or, the cause of a symptom can be a different medical condition that isn’t cancer. Urinary symptoms also may be caused by an infection of the bladder or other conditions.
If cancer has spread outside of the prostate gland, a male can experience:
1) Pain in the back, thighs, hips, shoulders, or other bones
2) Swelling or fluid buildup in the legs or feet
3) Unexplained weight loss
5) Change in bowel habits
This list describes options for diagnosing this kind of cancer. Not each test listed beneath are normally used for every person. Your doctor can consider these factors when choosing a diagnostic test:
1) The type of cancer suspected
2) Your signs and symptoms
3) Your age and medical condition
4) The results of earlier medical tests
In addition to physical tests, the following tests can be used to diagnose prostate cancer:
1) PSA test
3) Biomarker tests
Confirming the diagnosis:
If the PSA or DRE exam results are abnormal, then the following tests can assist confirm a diagnosis of cancer:
1) PCA3 test
2) Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
4) MRI fusion biopsy
Because most prostate cancers are found in the early stages when they are improving slowly, you usually don’t have to rush to make treatment decisions. During this time, it’s important to talk with your doctor about the dangers and advantages of all your treatment options and when treatment should start. This discussion should also address the current state of cancer, like:
1) Whether PSA levels are rising or steady
2) Whether cancer has spread to the bones
3) Your health history
4) Any other medical conditions you may have
Although your treatment suggestions will rely on these factors, there are few general steps for treating early-stage and locally advanced prostate cancer. Treatment options for advanced and metastatic prostate cancer are described later in this section.
1) Early-stage prostate cancer (stages I and II)
2) Locally advanced prostate cancer (stage III)
Local treatments get rid of cancer from a specific, limited area of the body. Such treatments include surgery and radiation therapy. For male diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer, local treatments can get rid of cancer completely. If cancer has spread outside the prostate gland, other types of treatment called systemic treatments may be required to destroy cancer cells located in other parts of the body.
2) Radiation therapy
3) Focal therapies
4) Systemic treatments
5) Specific types of ADT
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