MS (Multiple sclerosis ) is a potentially disabling sickness of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).
In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication issues between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the sickness could cause permanent harm or deterioration of the nerves.
Several sclerosis signs and symptoms could differ greatly from person to person and over the course of the disease rely on the location of affected nerve fibers. Symptoms often affect movement, like:
1) Numbness or weakness in one or more limbs that typically happen on one side of your body at a time, or the legs and trunk
2) Electric-shock sensations that happen with certain neck movements, especially bending the neck forward (Lhermitte sign)
3) Tremor, lack of coordination or unsteady gait
Vision problems are also common, including:
1) Partial or complete loss of vision, ordinarily in one eye at a time, frequently with pain during eye movement
2) Prolonged double vision
3) Blurry vision
Multiple sclerosis symptoms could also include:
1) Slurred speech
4) Tingling or pain in parts of your body
5) Problems with sexual, bowel and bladder function
There are no specific tests for MS. Instead, a diagnosis of several sclerosis frequently depending on ruling out other conditions that might produce similar signs and symptoms, known as a differential diagnosis.
Your doctor is likely to start with a thorough medical record and test.
Your doctor may then suggest:
1) Blood tests
2) Spinal tap (lumbar puncture)
4) Evoked potential tests
There is no cure for MS. Treatment typically focuses on speeding recovery from attacks, slowing the progression of the sickness and managing MS symptoms. Some individuals have such mild symptoms that no treatment is necessary.
Treatments for MS attacks:
2) Plasma exchange (plasmapheresis)
Treatments to change progression:
For primary-progressive MS, ocrelizumab (Ocrevus) is the only FDA-approved disease-modifying therapy (DMT). those who receive this treatment are slightly less seemingly to progress than those who are untreated.
For relapsing-remitting MS, many disease-modifying therapies are on the market.
Much of the immune response related to MS happens in the early stages of the sickness. Aggressive treatment with these medications as early as possible can lower the relapse rate and slow the formation of latest lesions.
Many of the disease-modifying therapies used to treat MS carry vital health risks. choosing the right therapy for you’ll rely on careful consideration of several factors, including duration and severity of sickness, the effectiveness of previous MS treatments, different health problems, cost, and child-bearing status.
Treatment choices for relapsing-remitting MS include injectable medications, including:
1) Beta interferons
2) Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone, Glatopa)
Oral treatments include:
1) Fingolimod (Gilenya)
2) Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
3) Teriflunomide (Aubagio)
4) Siponimod (Mayzent)
Infusion treatments include:
1) Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus)
2) Natalizumab (Tysabri)
3) Alemtuzumab (Campath, Lemtrada)
Treatments for MS signs and symptoms:
1) physical therapy
2) Muscle relaxants
3) Medications to reduce fatigue
4) Medication to extend walking speed
5) other medications
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